What will students learn?

The primary goal of science is to understand the natural and human-designed worlds. Science refers to certain processes used by human for obtaining knowledge about nature, and to an organized body of knowledge about nature obtained by these processes. To reach their potential, students need to work through problems using self-guided instruction to problem solve mathematical based calculations or use experiments to better understand concepts through a real-world application approach.

There are goals in the field of  science:                                                                      

1) Relating science to technology, society, and the environment                                                                                  

2) Developing the skills, strategies, and habits of mind required for scientific inquiry                                                      

3) Understanding the basic concepts of science                                                                                                       

Every course in the secondary science program focuses on these three goals. General sciences covered in the junior years focus on five specific strands. The first strand covers the scientific investigation and career exploration. The remaining four strands cover specific topics in the realm of biology, chemistry, earth/space science, and physics. Life systems fall under biology, matter and energy fall under chemistry, earth/space systems fall under the earth, and space science and structure/mechanisms fall under physics.


Interaction in science is essential in this curriculum.  Teachers are responsible for developing appropriate instructional strategies to help students achieve the curriculum expectations, as well as appropriate methods for assessing and evaluating student learning. Using a variety of instructional, assessment, and evaluation strategies, teachers provide numerous hands-on opportunities for students to develop and refine their investigation skills. Science can play a key role in shaping student’s views about life and learning. Science exists in a broader social and economic context. It is affected by the values and choices of individuals, businesses, and governments and, in turn, has a significant impact on society and the environment. Teachers need to help students understand that problem solving of any kind often requires a considerable expenditure of time and energy and a good deal of perseverance. The choice of activities selected by the teacher to empower the modern learners can help cultivate better problem-solving skills, critical and creative thinking skills, and communication skills while discovering fundamental concepts through inquiry, exploration, observation, and research.


Sample curriculum for grade 9-10:

Overall expectations

  1. Assess social, environmental, and economic impacts of the use of common elements and compounds, with reference to their physical and chemical properties
  2. Investigate, through inquiry, the physical and chemical properties of common elements and compounds                                                                                               
  3. Demonstrate an understanding of the properties of common elements and compounds, and of the organization of elements in the periodic table.

Specific expectations

  1. Assess the usefulness or hazardous properties associated with common elements or compounds. For example, when examining the pipes inside one’s home that you notice the inner and outer layers of the pipe surrounded in gold or platinum as they are non-reactive and durable to corrosion. Properties in elements that are high in reactivity could be hazardous to have coated within the pipes such as alkali metals or alkaline earth metals. Knowing the properties of such elements is a useful tool for individuals to better understand the pros and cons of the materials and prevent danger from ensuing.
  2. Plan and conduct an inquiry into the properties of common substances found in the laboratory or used in everyday life. For example, the slurry is a tactic that improves the efficiency of transporting metallic ores and other minerals from point A to point B. Solids are difficult to maneuver hence extracting minerals then mixing them with liquids and transporting them through pipes quickly increases volume and speed to obtain valuable resources. Eventually, the minerals are separated from the viscous properties of liquids higher in water concentration in order to use them as intended to builds goods and resources that human beings can purchase for living purposes. Limestone also is known as calcium carbonate is a great compound that can be used for the base of new roads. Extracting these elements from rocks in shallow water through slurry help human beings expand road building. However, there has also been mounting evidence that human beings are taking up resources at a rate too great for long term sustainability. Environmental concerns therefore may or may impede practices such as slurry.
  3. Describe patterns in the arrangement of electrons in the first 20 elements of the periodic table, using the Bohr-Rutherford model. For example, atoms are everywhere and interact with other atoms. In order to understand how they will react when they interact with a particular neighboring atom, it is important to know their valence electrons to predict the outcome. Understanding the Bohr-Rutherford model will help the individual learn about reactivity, ability to share or give away electrons which are a building block to higher level chemistry senior courses regarding topics such as organic chemistry that play a huge role in the world that surrounds us.


Mr. Koh Graduated from University of Toronto

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